The Gentlemen`s Agreement of 1907 (日米紳士協約, Nichibei Shinshi Kyōyaku)) was an informal agreement between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan, under which the United States would not impose any restrictions on Japanese immigration and Japan would not allow further emigration to the United States. The aim was to reduce tensions between the two Pacific countries. The agreement was never ratified by the United States Congress and replaced by the Immigration Act of 1924. Chinese immigration to California exploded during the 1852 gold rush, but the strict Japanese government practiced a policy of isolation that thwarted Japanese emigration. It was not until 1868 that the Japanese government began to restrict and Japanese immigration to the United States began. Anti-Chinese sentiment motivated American entrepreneurs to recruit Japanese workers. In 1885, the first Japanese workers arrived in the then independent Kingdom of Hawaii.[2] A gentlemen`s agreement or gentleman`s agreement is an informal, non-legally binding agreement between two or more parties. It is usually oral, but it can be written or simply understood as part of a tacit agreement by convention or mutually beneficial label. The essence of a gentlemen`s agreement is that it relies on the honor of the parties for its fulfillment, rather than being enforceable in any way.

It is different from a legal agreement or contract. Concessions were agreed a year later in a six-point note. The agreement was followed by the admission of students of Japanese origin to public schools. The adoption of the 1907 agreement stimulated the arrival of “wives of images”, marriages of convenience made from afar through photographs. [11] By establishing remote marital ties, women who wanted to emigrate to the United States could obtain a passport and Japanese workers in America could obtain a partner of their own nationality. [11] As a result of this provision, which helped close the gender gap within the Community from a ratio of 7 men to every woman in 1910 to less than 2:1 in 1920, the Japan-U.S. population continued to grow despite immigration restrictions under the Agreement. The Gentlemen`s Agreement was never enshrined in law passed by the U.S. Congress, but was an informal agreement between the United States and Japan enacted by unilateral action by President Roosevelt. It was repealed by the Immigration Act of 1924, which legally prohibited all Asians from emigrating to the United States. [12] Gentlemen`s agreements were a widespread discriminatory tactic that would have been more common than restrictive alliances to preserve the homogeneity of upper-class neighborhoods and suburbs in the United States. [17] The nature of these agreements made them extremely difficult to prove or prosecute, and they were so long after the U.S.

Supreme Court decisions in Shelley v. Kraemer and Barrows v. Jackson. [17] One source claims that gentlemen`s agreements “undoubtedly still exist,” but that their use has declined sharply. [17] Japan was willing to limit immigration to the United States, but was deeply violated by San Francisco`s discriminatory law specifically targeting its people. President Roosevelt, who wanted to maintain good relations with Japan as a counterweight to Russian expansion in the Far East, intervened. .