Texas Annexation Agreement
Believing that he was about to reach an agreement with the Mexicans, Trist ignored the recall order and presented Polk with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, signed in Mexico City on February 2, 1848. Under the terms of the treaty, Mexico ceded to the United States about 525,000 square miles (55 percent of its prewar territory) in exchange for a lump sum payment of $15 million and the assumption of debts worth up to $3.25 million by the U.S. government, which Mexico owed to U.S. citizens. In 1843, British interference in the question of annexation – Britain opposed annexation in order to maintain trade with Texas and thwart the westward expansion of the United States – first forced President John Tyler to reconsider the Republic`s membership in the Union. His first attempt was rejected by the Senate in 1844, but the annexation was finally achieved through this joint resolution, signed by President Tyler on March 1, 1845. After the joint resolution was passed and a state constitution was drafted, Texas was officially annexed on December 29, 1845. President Tyler expected his treaty to be secretly debated during the Senate Executive Session.  Less than a week after the beginning of the proceedings, however, the treaty, related internal correspondence, and Packenham`s letter were disclosed to the public.
The nature of the Tyler-Texas negotiations caused a national outcry, as “the documents seemed to confirm that the sole purpose of the annexation of Texas was the preservation of slavery.”  A mobilization of anti-annexation forces in the North increased the hostility of both major parties to Tyler`s agenda. The main presidential candidates of both parties, Democrat Martin Van Buren and Whig Henry Clay, have publicly condemned the treaty.  The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of the Oregon Territory became central issues in the 1844 general election.  Prior to annexation, there was an ongoing border dispute between the Republic of Texas and Mexico. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border based on the Velasco Treaties, while Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River and did not recognize Texas independence. In November 1845, President James K. Polk sent John Slidell, a secret representative, to Mexico City with a financial offer to the Mexican government for the disputed country and other Mexican territories. Mexico was neither inclined nor able to negotiate because of the instability of its government and the nationalist mood of the population against such a sale.  Slidell returned to the United States, and Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy the southern border of Texas as defined by the former republic in 1846. Taylor settled in Texas, ignored Mexican demands for retirement, and marched south to the Rio Grande, where he began building a fort near the mouth of the river in the Gulf of Mexico. The Mexican government saw this action as a violation of its sovereignty and immediately prepared for war. After a U.S.
victory and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded its claims to Texas and the border with the Rio Grande was accepted by both nations. The Tyler Texas Treaty was in its final phase when its chief architects, Secretary Upshur and Secretary of the Navy Thomas W. Gilmer, died in an accident aboard the USS Princeton on February 28, 1844, just one day after concluding a preliminary draft treaty with the Republic of Texas.  The Princeton disaster proved to be a major setback for the annexation of Texas, as Tyler expected Secretary Upshur to receive critical support from Whig and Democratic senators in the next treaty ratification process. Tyler chose John C. Calhoun to replace Upshur as Secretary of State and sign the treaty with Texas. The election of Calhoun, a highly respected but controversial American statesman, risked introducing a politically polarizing element into the debates in Texas, but Tyler considered him a strong supporter of annexation.   When President Polk was elected on September 4. When he took office (noon EST), he was able to remember Tyler`s assignment in Texas and reconsider his decision. On March 10, after consulting with his cabinet, Polk confirmed Tyler`s action and allowed the courier to travel to Texas with the offer of immediate annexation.
 The only change was to urge Texans to accept the terms of the annexation unconditionally.  Polk`s decision was based on his fear that a lengthy negotiation by U.S. commissioners would expose annexation efforts to foreign intrigue and interference.  While Polk kept his annexation efforts confidential, senators passed a resolution calling for the official disclosure of government policy in Texas. Polk stagnated, and when the special session of the Senate was adjourned on 20 March 1845, he had not provided names to the American commissioners in Texas. Polk denied Senator Benton`s allegations that he misled Benton in his intention to support the new negotiating option, stating, “If such commitments were made, it was in complete misunderstanding of what I said or wanted to say.”  This “safety valve” theory “appealed to the racial fears of whites in the North,” who feared the prospect of accepting emancipated slaves into their communities if the institution of slavery in the South collapsed.  This model of racial cleansing was pragmatically consistent with the proposals for black colonization abroad, pursued by a number of American presidents from Jefferson to Lincoln.  Walker reinforced his position by expressing concerns about national security and warning that if annexation failed, Britain would lead the Republic of Texas to emancipate its slaves, and predicted a dangerous destabilizing influence on the slave states of the southwest.
The pamphlet characterized the abolitionists as traitors who had conspired with the British to overthrow the United States.   APA. 13. The decree adopted by the Convention on the fourth day of July (in what year?) approving the Overtures for the Annexation of Texas to the United States shall be annexed to and shall form an integral part of this Constitution. Andrew J. Donelson brought the proposal to Texas and lobbied for its immediate adoption. The U.S. government had good reason to provide for England and France, hoping that Texas could be persuaded to reject annexation and remain independent, Mexico had urged to accept a peace treaty.
Anson Jones, President of Texas, agreed to the terms of a treaty with Mexico by which that country agreed to recognize Texas` independence on the condition that Texas not be annexed by the United States. Jones presented the two proposals, Mexican annexation and recognition, to the Congress of the Republic (how can it be if Congress never met after his election?) and to the people of Texas (Which people and when?), who accepted the conditions of annexation by the Convention of 1845 (only 57 delegates present and only 13 of them came from Texas). This action put an end to all diplomatic activities of the Republic, although some time elapsed before the return of the various foreign representatives of Texas. As Minister Upshur accelerated secret talks on the treaty, Mexican diplomats learned that talks were taking place between the United States and Texas. Mexican U.S. Secretary Juan Almonte confronted Upshur with these reports, warning him that Mexico would sever diplomatic relations and declare war immediately if Congress approved an annexation treaty.  Minister Upshur dodged and dismissed the charges and continued negotiations.  Along with Texas diplomats, Upshur secretly lobbied U.S.
senators to support annexation, providing lawmakers with compelling arguments linking the Texas acquisition to national security and domestic peace. Early in 1844, Upshur succeeded in assuring Texas officials that 40 of the 52 members of the Senate had committed to ratifying the Tyler Texas Treaty, more than the two-thirds majority required for its adoption. Tyler maintained his silence on the secret treaty in his annual speech to Congress in December 1843 so as not to damage relations with cautious Texas diplomats.  Tyler went out of his way to keep the negotiations secret and did not publicly mention his administration`s deliberate search for Texas.  3- CONVENTION OF 1845. The Convention of 1845 was convened by Anson Jones to meet in Austin to discuss the joint resolution of the United States Congress proposing the annexation of the Republic of Texas to the United States. The convent met on July 4, 1845. Thomas Jefferson Rusk was elected president of the convention, and James H. Raymond was secretary.
By fifty-five votes to one, the delegates approved the annexation offer. Richard Bache of Galveston was the only dissident. Subsequently, the Convention prepared the Constitution of 1845 for the new State […].
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