The tripartite alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882 had made Russia vulnerable, while France had been diplomatically isolated since its defeat in the Franco-German war in 1871 and the policy that followed Otto von Bismarck. Despite the political differences between France, a republic, and Russia, an absolute monarchy, relations between the two countries quickly improved. The history of the alliance extended until the early 1870s, to the contradictions created by the Franco-German War and the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871. The Russian government had supported France during the terror of the war of 1875, when Russian and British protests forced Germany to stop threatening to attack France. [1] In 1876, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck tried unsuccessfully to obtain a guarantee from Russia for the maintenance of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine within the framework of Germany, in exchange for Germany`s unconditional support for Russian policy in the East. In 1877, during the new Franco-German scare, Russia maintained friendly relations with France. However, after the Berlin Congress of 1878, French diplomacy, which sought to get closer to Britain and Germany, took a hostile stance towards Russia. France`s alienation from Russia and its policy of colonial confiscation lasted until 1885, when Franco-German contradictions worsened after the French defeat at Annam. In early 1887, new complications adle in Franco-German relations.

France has appealed to the Russian government for help. When the reinsurance contract with Germany was concluded in 1887, Russia insisted on maintaining the same conditions for France as Germany had set for its ally Austria. [2] 2. If the forces of the Tripartite Alliance or one of its powers are mobilized, France and Russia, at the first announcement of this event and without prior broadcast time, will immediately and simultaneously mobilize all their forces and push them as far as possible to their borders. In the late 1880s, Russian-German economic disparities widened. The Russian-French political rapprochement contributed to the arrival of French capital in Russia. In the late 1880s and early 1890s, Russia received a series of large loans from France. The deterioration of Russian-German relations, the resurrection of the tripartite alliance in 1891 and rumours that Britain would join the alliance laid the groundwork for a political agreement between Russia and France. During a visit by a French squadron to Kronstadt in July 1891, the 1891 agreement was concluded in the form of an exchange of letters between the foreign ministers. France was much more interested than Russia in a military alliance and sought to supplement the 1891 agreement with military commitments.

Following the negotiations, representatives of the Russian and French staffs signed a military agreement on 17 August (5 August in the Russian calendar) providing mutual military assistance in the event of a German attack. Through an exchange of letters between December 27 (December 15), 1893 and January 4, 1894 (December 23, 1893), the two governments announced their ratification of the Military Convention. This formalized the Russian-French military-political alliance. It was a reaction to the formation of a military bloc (the tripartite alliance led by Germany). Two opposing hostile imperialist blocs had formed in Europe. [3] The Franco-Russian alliance (French: Franco-Russian Alliance, Russian: , , romantized: Franko-Russkiy Al`yans) or Russian-French rapprochement (Russian-French rapprochement, Russko-Frantsuzskoye Sblizheniye) was an alliance formed by the agreements from 1891 to 1894. it lasted until 1917.